Question Set 4

  1. Explain in a system-of-systems framework the nature of feedback loops and thresholds.
  2. Compare recent climate change (last 100 years) to pre-industrial variability. What are the main differences?
  3. Which of the nine global boundaries of the "safe operating space for humanity" discussed in Rockström and Klum (2015) have been crossed most significantly and how is the crossing of these boundaries interdependent?
  4. GRAD: Most of the additional energy stored in the Earth system is stored in the Ocean (IUCN, 2016; Cheng et al., 2016). What does this tell us about the extent of global warming an our ability to mitigate global warming?

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Please, submit the answers by e-mail to the two instructors. Note that your answers to the questions should be concise and in a scientific writing style. Please, include your name at the top and the questions before each answer. The answers have to cite the sources consulted in writing the answer and a list of references. Citations and Reference have to follow the documentation style defined by the Council of Scientific Editors, known as the CSE style. See SSF-Guide or the WISC page for more information on the CSE style. Examples of correct references can be found here.

Questions marked with "GRAD" are to be answered only by students in the 500-level class.